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Clinical Profile and Outcome of Patients With Diabetes Mellitus Foot Ulcer in Gusau Northwestern Nigeria

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Diabetes Mellitus foot ulcer (DMFU) is a worrisome chronic complication of diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical profile and outcome of patients with DMFU in our setting. This was a 3-year retrospective descriptive study of patients managed with DMFU at two tertiary health facilities in Gusau. Relevant information from the files was extracted such as socio-demographics, duration of Diabetes and ulcer, risk factors and causes of DMFU, Wagner grading, random plasma Glucose at presentation, packed cell volume, duration of hospital stay and outcomes. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 20.0 statistical software. One hundred and nineteen case notes were retrieved. They consisted of 45(37.8%) males and 74(62.2%) females. Their mean age was 56.0±12.8years. The mean duration of Diabetes and foot ulcers before presentation were 4.8±4.29years and 4.02±4.6weeks respectively. The ulcer healed normally in 71(59.6%) patients, 25(21%) had amputations and 15(12.6%) left against medical advice. The overall mortality rate was 6.7% [males 5(62.5%), females 3(37.5%), p < 0.001]. Predictors of ulcer healing were early presentation, female gender and packed cell volume greater than 24% at presentation. The mean duration of admission was 5.4±4.2weeks. Forty-one (43%) patients were on admission for more than 4 weeks. DMFU is a cause of prolonged hospital admission, amputations and mortality in our setting. Sustained health education on foot care will go a long way in taming the tide.

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